[7969] | 1 | #! /usr/bin/python |
---|
| 2 | |
---|
| 3 | # To change this template, choose Tools | Templates |
---|
| 4 | # and open the template in the editor. |
---|
| 5 | |
---|
| 6 | __author__="steve" |
---|
| 7 | __date__ ="$23/08/2010 5:18:51 PM$" |
---|
| 8 | |
---|
| 9 | |
---|
[7980] | 10 | import culvert_routine |
---|
| 11 | from anuga.config import velocity_protection |
---|
| 12 | from anuga.utilities.numerical_tools import safe_acos as acos |
---|
[7969] | 13 | |
---|
[7980] | 14 | from math import pi, sqrt, sin, cos |
---|
| 15 | from anuga.config import g |
---|
| 16 | |
---|
| 17 | |
---|
[7982] | 18 | class Boyd_box_culvert_routine(culvert_routine.Culvert_routine): |
---|
[7969] | 19 | """Boyd's generalisation of the US department of transportation culvert methods |
---|
| 20 | |
---|
[7980] | 21 | WARNING THIS IS A SIMPLISTIC APPROACH and OUTLET VELOCITIES ARE LIMITED TO EITHER |
---|
| 22 | FULL PIPE OR CRITICAL DEPTH ONLY |
---|
| 23 | For Supercritical flow this is UNDERESTIMATING the Outlet Velocity |
---|
| 24 | The obtain the CORRECT velocity requires an iteration of Depth to Establish |
---|
| 25 | the Normal Depth of flow in the pipe. |
---|
[7969] | 26 | |
---|
[7980] | 27 | It is proposed to provide this in a seperate routine called |
---|
| 28 | boyd_generalised_culvert_model_complex |
---|
[7969] | 29 | |
---|
[7980] | 30 | The Boyd Method is based on methods described by the following: |
---|
| 31 | 1. |
---|
| 32 | US Dept. Transportation Federal Highway Administration (1965) |
---|
| 33 | Hydraulic Chart for Selection of Highway Culverts. |
---|
| 34 | Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 5 US Government Printing |
---|
| 35 | 2. |
---|
| 36 | US Dept. Transportation Federal Highway Administration (1972) |
---|
| 37 | Capacity charts for the Hydraulic design of highway culverts. |
---|
| 38 | Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 10 US Government Printing |
---|
| 39 | These documents provide around 60 charts for various configurations of culverts and inlets. |
---|
[7969] | 40 | |
---|
[7980] | 41 | Note these documents have been superceded by: |
---|
| 42 | 2005 Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 (HDS-5), |
---|
| 43 | Which combines culvert design information previously contained in Hydraulic Engineering Circulars |
---|
| 44 | (HEC) No. 5, No. 10, and No. 13 with hydrologic, storage routing, and special culvert design information. |
---|
| 45 | HEC-5 provides 20 Charts |
---|
| 46 | HEC-10 Provides an additional 36 Charts |
---|
| 47 | HEC-13 Discusses the Design of improved more efficient inlets |
---|
| 48 | HDS-5 Provides 60 sets of Charts |
---|
[7969] | 49 | |
---|
[7980] | 50 | In 1985 Professor Michael Boyd Published "Head-Discharge Relations for Culverts", and in |
---|
| 51 | 1987 published "Generalised Head Discharge Equations for Culverts". |
---|
| 52 | These papers reviewed the previous work by the US DOT and provided a simplistic approach for 3 configurations. |
---|
[7969] | 53 | |
---|
[7980] | 54 | It may be possible to extend the same approach for additional charts in the original work, but to date this has not been done. |
---|
| 55 | The additional charts cover a range of culvert shapes and inlet configurations |
---|
[7969] | 56 | |
---|
| 57 | |
---|
[7980] | 58 | """ |
---|
[7969] | 59 | |
---|
[7980] | 60 | def __init__(self, culvert, manning=0.0): |
---|
[7969] | 61 | |
---|
[7980] | 62 | culvert_routine.Culvert_routine.__init__(self, culvert, manning) |
---|
[7969] | 63 | |
---|
| 64 | |
---|
| 65 | |
---|
[7980] | 66 | def __call__(self): |
---|
[7969] | 67 | |
---|
[7980] | 68 | self.determine_inflow() |
---|
[7969] | 69 | |
---|
[7980] | 70 | local_debug ='false' |
---|
| 71 | |
---|
[7984] | 72 | if self.inflow.get_enquiry_height() > 0.01: #this value was 0.01: |
---|
[7980] | 73 | if local_debug =='true': |
---|
| 74 | log.critical('Specific E & Deltat Tot E = %s, %s' |
---|
[7984] | 75 | % (str(self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy()), |
---|
[7980] | 76 | str(self.delta_total_energy))) |
---|
| 77 | log.critical('culvert type = %s' % str(culvert_type)) |
---|
| 78 | # Water has risen above inlet |
---|
| 79 | |
---|
| 80 | if self.log_filename is not None: |
---|
[7984] | 81 | s = 'Specific energy = %f m' % self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy() |
---|
[7980] | 82 | log_to_file(self.log_filename, s) |
---|
| 83 | |
---|
| 84 | msg = 'Specific energy at inlet is negative' |
---|
[7984] | 85 | assert self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy() >= 0.0, msg |
---|
[7980] | 86 | |
---|
| 87 | height = self.culvert_height |
---|
| 88 | width = self.culvert_width |
---|
| 89 | flow_width = self.culvert_width |
---|
| 90 | |
---|
[7984] | 91 | Q_inlet_unsubmerged = 0.540*g**0.5*width*self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy()**1.50 # Flow based on Inlet Ctrl Inlet Unsubmerged |
---|
| 92 | Q_inlet_submerged = 0.702*g**0.5*width*height**0.89*self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy()**0.61 # Flow based on Inlet Ctrl Inlet Submerged |
---|
[7980] | 93 | |
---|
| 94 | # FIXME(Ole): Are these functions really for inlet control? |
---|
| 95 | if Q_inlet_unsubmerged < Q_inlet_submerged: |
---|
| 96 | Q = Q_inlet_unsubmerged |
---|
| 97 | dcrit = (Q**2/g/width**2)**0.333333 |
---|
| 98 | if dcrit > height: |
---|
| 99 | dcrit = height |
---|
| 100 | flow_area = width*dcrit |
---|
| 101 | outlet_culvert_depth = dcrit |
---|
| 102 | case = 'Inlet unsubmerged Box Acts as Weir' |
---|
| 103 | else: |
---|
| 104 | Q = Q_inlet_submerged |
---|
| 105 | flow_area = width*height |
---|
| 106 | outlet_culvert_depth = height |
---|
| 107 | case = 'Inlet submerged Box Acts as Orifice' |
---|
| 108 | |
---|
[7969] | 109 | dcrit = (Q**2/g/width**2)**0.333333 |
---|
[7980] | 110 | |
---|
| 111 | outlet_culvert_depth = dcrit |
---|
| 112 | if outlet_culvert_depth > height: |
---|
| 113 | outlet_culvert_depth = height # Once again the pipe is flowing full not partfull |
---|
| 114 | flow_area = width*height # Cross sectional area of flow in the culvert |
---|
| 115 | perimeter = 2*(width+height) |
---|
| 116 | case = 'Inlet CTRL Outlet unsubmerged PIPE PART FULL' |
---|
[7969] | 117 | else: |
---|
[7980] | 118 | flow_area = width * outlet_culvert_depth |
---|
| 119 | perimeter = width+2*outlet_culvert_depth |
---|
| 120 | case = 'INLET CTRL Culvert is open channel flow we will for now assume critical depth' |
---|
[7969] | 121 | |
---|
[7984] | 122 | if self.delta_total_energy < self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy(): |
---|
[7980] | 123 | # Calculate flows for outlet control |
---|
[7969] | 124 | |
---|
[7980] | 125 | # Determine the depth at the outlet relative to the depth of flow in the Culvert |
---|
[7984] | 126 | if self.outflow.get_enquiry_height() > height: # The Outlet is Submerged |
---|
[7980] | 127 | outlet_culvert_depth=height |
---|
| 128 | flow_area=width*height # Cross sectional area of flow in the culvert |
---|
| 129 | perimeter=2.0*(width+height) |
---|
| 130 | case = 'Outlet submerged' |
---|
| 131 | else: # Here really should use the Culvert Slope to calculate Actual Culvert Depth & Velocity |
---|
| 132 | dcrit = (Q**2/g/width**2)**0.333333 |
---|
| 133 | outlet_culvert_depth=dcrit # For purpose of calculation assume the outlet depth = Critical Depth |
---|
| 134 | if outlet_culvert_depth > height: |
---|
| 135 | outlet_culvert_depth=height |
---|
| 136 | flow_area=width*height |
---|
| 137 | perimeter=2.0*(width+height) |
---|
| 138 | case = 'Outlet is Flowing Full' |
---|
| 139 | else: |
---|
| 140 | flow_area=width*outlet_culvert_depth |
---|
| 141 | perimeter=(width+2.0*outlet_culvert_depth) |
---|
| 142 | case = 'Outlet is open channel flow' |
---|
[7969] | 143 | |
---|
[7980] | 144 | hyd_rad = flow_area/perimeter |
---|
[7969] | 145 | |
---|
[7980] | 146 | if self.log_filename is not None: |
---|
| 147 | s = 'hydraulic radius at outlet = %f' % hyd_rad |
---|
| 148 | log_to_file(self.log_filename, s) |
---|
[7969] | 149 | |
---|
[7980] | 150 | # Outlet control velocity using tail water |
---|
| 151 | culvert_velocity = sqrt(self.delta_total_energy/((self.sum_loss/2/g)+(self.manning**2*self.culvert_length)/hyd_rad**1.33333)) |
---|
| 152 | Q_outlet_tailwater = flow_area * culvert_velocity |
---|
[7969] | 153 | |
---|
[7980] | 154 | if self.log_filename is not None: |
---|
| 155 | s = 'Q_outlet_tailwater = %.6f' % Q_outlet_tailwater |
---|
| 156 | log_to_file(self.log_filename, s) |
---|
| 157 | Q = min(Q, Q_outlet_tailwater) |
---|
| 158 | else: |
---|
| 159 | pass |
---|
| 160 | #FIXME(Ole): What about inlet control? |
---|
[7969] | 161 | |
---|
[7980] | 162 | culv_froude=sqrt(Q**2*flow_width/(g*flow_area**3)) |
---|
| 163 | if local_debug =='true': |
---|
| 164 | log.critical('FLOW AREA = %s' % str(flow_area)) |
---|
| 165 | log.critical('PERIMETER = %s' % str(perimeter)) |
---|
| 166 | log.critical('Q final = %s' % str(Q)) |
---|
| 167 | log.critical('FROUDE = %s' % str(culv_froude)) |
---|
[7969] | 168 | |
---|
[7980] | 169 | # Determine momentum at the outlet |
---|
| 170 | barrel_velocity = Q/(flow_area + velocity_protection/flow_area) |
---|
[7969] | 171 | |
---|
[7980] | 172 | # END CODE BLOCK for DEPTH > Required depth for CULVERT Flow |
---|
[7969] | 173 | |
---|
[7984] | 174 | else: # self.inflow.get_enquiry_height() < 0.01: |
---|
[7980] | 175 | Q = barrel_velocity = outlet_culvert_depth = 0.0 |
---|
[7969] | 176 | |
---|
[7980] | 177 | # Temporary flow limit |
---|
| 178 | if barrel_velocity > self.max_velocity: |
---|
| 179 | barrel_velocity = self.max_velocity |
---|
| 180 | Q = flow_area * barrel_velocity |
---|
[7969] | 181 | |
---|
| 182 | |
---|
| 183 | |
---|
[7980] | 184 | |
---|
[7969] | 185 | |
---|
[7980] | 186 | return Q, barrel_velocity, outlet_culvert_depth |
---|
[7969] | 187 | |
---|
[7980] | 188 | |
---|
| 189 | |
---|