1 | import anuga |
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2 | import math |
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3 | import types |
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4 | |
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5 | class Boyd_pipe_operator(anuga.Structure_operator): |
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6 | """Culvert flow - transfer water from one location to another via a circular pipe culvert. |
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7 | Sets up the geometry of problem |
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8 | |
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9 | This is the base class for culverts. Inherit from this class (and overwrite |
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10 | compute_discharge method for specific subclasses) |
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11 | |
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12 | Input: Two points, pipe_size (diameter), |
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13 | mannings_rougness, |
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14 | """ |
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15 | |
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16 | def __init__(self, |
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17 | domain, |
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18 | losses, |
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19 | end_points=None, |
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20 | exchange_lines=None, |
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21 | enquiry_points=None, |
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22 | diameter=None, |
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23 | apron=0.1, |
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24 | manning=0.013, |
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25 | enquiry_gap=0.2, |
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26 | use_momentum_jet=True, |
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27 | use_velocity_head=True, |
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28 | description=None, |
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29 | label=None, |
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30 | structure_type='boyd_pipe', |
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31 | logging=False, |
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32 | verbose=False): |
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33 | |
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34 | anuga.Structure_operator.__init__(self, |
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35 | domain, |
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36 | end_points, |
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37 | exchange_lines, |
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38 | enquiry_points, |
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39 | width=diameter, |
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40 | height=None, |
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41 | apron=apron, |
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42 | manning=manning, |
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43 | enquiry_gap=enquiry_gap, |
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44 | description=description, |
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45 | label=label, |
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46 | structure_type=structure_type, |
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47 | logging=logging, |
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48 | verbose=verbose) |
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49 | |
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50 | |
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51 | if type(losses) == types.DictType: |
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52 | self.sum_loss = sum(losses.values()) |
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53 | elif type(losses) == types.ListType: |
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54 | self.sum_loss = sum(losses) |
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55 | else: |
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56 | self.sum_loss = losses |
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57 | |
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58 | self.use_momentum_jet = use_momentum_jet |
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59 | self.use_velocity_head = use_velocity_head |
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60 | |
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61 | self.culvert_length = self.get_culvert_length() |
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62 | self.culvert_diameter = self.get_culvert_diameter() |
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63 | |
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64 | self.max_velocity = 10.0 |
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65 | |
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66 | self.inlets = self.get_inlets() |
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67 | |
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68 | # Stats |
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69 | |
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70 | self.discharge = 0.0 |
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71 | self.velocity = 0.0 |
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72 | |
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73 | self.case = 'N/A' |
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74 | |
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75 | def discharge_routine(self): |
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76 | |
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77 | #self.__determine_inflow_outflow() |
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78 | |
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79 | local_debug ='false' |
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80 | |
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81 | if self.use_velocity_head: |
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82 | self.delta_total_energy = self.inlets[0].get_enquiry_total_energy() - self.inlets[1].get_enquiry_total_energy() |
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83 | else: |
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84 | self.delta_total_energy = self.inlets[0].get_enquiry_stage() - self.inlets[1].get_enquiry_stage() |
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85 | |
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86 | self.inflow = self.inlets[0] |
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87 | self.outflow = self.inlets[1] |
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88 | |
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89 | if self.delta_total_energy < 0: |
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90 | self.inflow = self.inlets[1] |
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91 | self.outflow = self.inlets[0] |
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92 | self.delta_total_energy = -self.delta_total_energy |
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93 | |
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94 | if self.inflow.get_enquiry_depth() > 0.01: #this value was 0.01: Remember this needs to be compared to the Invert Lvl |
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95 | if local_debug =='true': |
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96 | anuga.log.critical('Specific E & Deltat Tot E = %s, %s' |
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97 | % (str(self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy()), |
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98 | str(self.delta_total_energy))) |
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99 | anuga.log.critical('culvert type = %s' % str(culvert_type)) |
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100 | # Water has risen above inlet |
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101 | |
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102 | |
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103 | msg = 'Specific energy at inlet is negative' |
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104 | assert self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy() >= 0.0, msg |
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105 | |
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106 | if self.use_velocity_head : |
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107 | self.driving_energy = self.inflow.get_enquiry_specific_energy() |
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108 | else: |
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109 | self.driving_energy = self.inflow.get_enquiry_depth() |
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110 | """ |
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111 | For a circular pipe the Boyd method reviews 3 conditions |
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112 | 1. Whether the Pipe Inlet is Unsubmerged (acting as weir flow into the inlet) |
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113 | 2. Whether the Pipe Inlet is Fully Submerged (acting as an Orifice) |
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114 | 3. Whether the energy loss in the pipe results in the Pipe being controlled by Channel Flow of the Pipe |
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115 | |
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116 | For these conditions we also would like to assess the pipe flow characteristics as it leaves the pipe |
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117 | """ |
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118 | |
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119 | diameter = self.culvert_diameter |
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120 | |
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121 | local_debug ='false' |
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122 | if self.inflow.get_average_depth() > 0.01: #this should test against invert |
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123 | if local_debug =='true': |
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124 | anuga.log.critical('Specific E & Deltat Tot E = %s, %s' |
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125 | % (str(self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy()), |
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126 | str(self.delta_total_energy))) |
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127 | anuga.log.critical('culvert type = %s' % str(culvert_type)) |
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128 | # Water has risen above inlet |
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129 | |
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130 | |
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131 | msg = 'Specific energy at inlet is negative' |
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132 | assert self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy() >= 0.0, msg |
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133 | |
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134 | # Calculate flows for inlet control for circular pipe |
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135 | Q_inlet_unsubmerged = 0.421*anuga.g**0.5*diameter**0.87*self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy()**1.63 # Inlet Ctrl Inlet Unsubmerged |
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136 | Q_inlet_submerged = 0.530*anuga.g**0.5*diameter**1.87*self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy()**0.63 # Inlet Ctrl Inlet Submerged |
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137 | # Note for to SUBMERGED TO OCCUR self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy() should be > 1.2 x diameter.... Should Check !!! |
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138 | |
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139 | |
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140 | Q = min(Q_inlet_unsubmerged, Q_inlet_submerged) |
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141 | |
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142 | # THE LOWEST Value will Control Calcs From here |
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143 | # Calculate Critical Depth Based on the Adopted Flow as an Estimate |
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144 | dcrit1 = diameter/1.26*(Q/anuga.g**0.5*diameter**2.5)**(1/3.75) |
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145 | dcrit2 = diameter/0.95*(Q/anuga.g**0.5*diameter**2.5)**(1/1.95) |
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146 | # From Boyd Paper ESTIMATE of Dcrit has 2 criteria as |
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147 | if dcrit1/diameter > 0.85: |
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148 | outlet_culvert_depth = dcrit2 |
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149 | else: |
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150 | outlet_culvert_depth = dcrit1 |
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151 | #outlet_culvert_depth = min(outlet_culvert_depth, diameter) |
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152 | # Now determine Hydraulic Radius Parameters Area & Wetted Perimeter |
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153 | if outlet_culvert_depth >= diameter: |
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154 | outlet_culvert_depth = diameter # Once again the pipe is flowing full not partfull |
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155 | flow_area = (diameter/2)**2 * math.pi # Cross sectional area of flow in the culvert |
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156 | perimeter = diameter * math.pi |
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157 | flow_width= diameter |
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158 | self.case = 'Inlet CTRL Outlet submerged Circular PIPE FULL' |
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159 | if local_debug == 'true': |
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160 | anuga.log.critical('Inlet CTRL Outlet submerged Circular ' |
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161 | 'PIPE FULL') |
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162 | else: |
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163 | #alpha = anuga.acos(1 - outlet_culvert_depth/diameter) # Where did this Come From ????/ |
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164 | alpha = anuga.acos(1-2*outlet_culvert_depth/diameter)*2 |
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165 | #flow_area = diameter**2 * (alpha - sin(alpha)*cos(alpha)) # Pipe is Running Partly Full at the INLET WHRE did this Come From ????? |
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166 | flow_area = diameter**2/8*(alpha - math.sin(alpha)) # Equation from GIECK 5th Ed. Pg. B3 |
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167 | flow_width= diameter*math.sin(alpha/2.0) |
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168 | perimeter = alpha*diameter/2.0 |
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169 | self.case = 'INLET CTRL Culvert is open channel flow we will for now assume critical depth' |
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170 | if local_debug =='true': |
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171 | anuga.log.critical('INLET CTRL Culvert is open channel flow ' |
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172 | 'we will for now assume critical depth') |
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173 | anuga.log.critical('Q Outlet Depth and ALPHA = %s, %s, %s' |
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174 | % (str(Q), str(outlet_culvert_depth), |
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175 | str(alpha))) |
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176 | if self.delta_total_energy < self.inflow.get_average_specific_energy(): # OUTLET CONTROL !!!! |
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177 | # Calculate flows for outlet control |
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178 | |
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179 | # Determine the depth at the outlet relative to the depth of flow in the Culvert |
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180 | if self.outflow.get_average_depth() > diameter: # Outlet is submerged Assume the end of the Pipe is flowing FULL |
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181 | outlet_culvert_depth=diameter |
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182 | flow_area = (diameter/2)**2 * math.pi # Cross sectional area of flow in the culvert |
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183 | perimeter = diameter * math.pi |
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184 | flow_width= diameter |
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185 | self.case = 'Outlet submerged' |
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186 | if local_debug =='true': |
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187 | anuga.log.critical('Outlet submerged') |
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188 | else: # Culvert running PART FULL for PART OF ITS LENGTH Here really should use the Culvert Slope to calculate Actual Culvert Depth & Velocity |
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189 | # IF self.outflow.get_average_depth() < diameter |
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190 | dcrit1 = diameter/1.26*(Q/anuga.g**0.5*diameter**2.5)**(1/3.75) |
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191 | dcrit2 = diameter/0.95*(Q/anuga.g**0.5*diameter**2.5)**(1/1.95) |
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192 | if dcrit1/diameter >0.85: |
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193 | outlet_culvert_depth= dcrit2 |
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194 | else: |
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195 | outlet_culvert_depth = dcrit1 |
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196 | if outlet_culvert_depth > diameter: |
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197 | outlet_culvert_depth = diameter # Once again the pipe is flowing full not partfull |
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198 | flow_area = (diameter/2)**2 * math.pi # Cross sectional area of flow in the culvert |
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199 | perimeter = diameter * math.pi |
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200 | flow_width= diameter |
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201 | self.case = 'Outlet unsubmerged PIPE FULL' |
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202 | if local_debug =='true': |
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203 | anuga.log.critical('Outlet unsubmerged PIPE FULL') |
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204 | else: |
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205 | alpha = anuga.acos(1-2*outlet_culvert_depth/diameter)*2 |
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206 | flow_area = diameter**2/8*(alpha - math.sin(alpha)) # Equation from GIECK 5th Ed. Pg. B3 |
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207 | flow_width= diameter*math.sin(alpha/2.0) |
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208 | perimeter = alpha*diameter/2.0 |
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209 | self.case = 'Outlet is open channel flow we will for now assume critical depth' |
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210 | if local_debug == 'true': |
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211 | anuga.log.critical('Q Outlet Depth and ALPHA = %s, %s, %s' |
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212 | % (str(Q), str(outlet_culvert_depth), |
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213 | str(alpha))) |
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214 | anuga.log.critical('Outlet is open channel flow we ' |
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215 | 'will for now assume critical depth') |
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216 | if local_debug == 'true': |
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217 | anuga.log.critical('FLOW AREA = %s' % str(flow_area)) |
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218 | anuga.log.critical('PERIMETER = %s' % str(perimeter)) |
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219 | anuga.log.critical('Q Interim = %s' % str(Q)) |
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220 | hyd_rad = flow_area/perimeter |
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221 | |
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222 | |
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223 | |
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224 | # Outlet control velocity using tail water |
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225 | if local_debug =='true': |
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226 | anuga.log.critical('GOT IT ALL CALCULATING Velocity') |
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227 | anuga.log.critical('HydRad = %s' % str(hyd_rad)) |
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228 | # Calculate Pipe Culvert Outlet Control Velocity.... May need initial Estimate First ?? |
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229 | |
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230 | culvert_velocity = math.sqrt(self.delta_total_energy/((self.sum_loss/2/anuga.g)+(self.manning**2*self.culvert_length)/hyd_rad**1.33333)) |
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231 | Q_outlet_tailwater = flow_area * culvert_velocity |
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232 | |
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233 | |
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234 | if local_debug =='true': |
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235 | anuga.log.critical('VELOCITY = %s' % str(culvert_velocity)) |
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236 | anuga.log.critical('Outlet Ctrl Q = %s' % str(Q_outlet_tailwater)) |
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237 | |
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238 | Q = min(Q, Q_outlet_tailwater) |
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239 | if local_debug =='true': |
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240 | anuga.log.critical('%s,%.3f,%.3f' |
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241 | % ('dcrit 1 , dcit2 =',dcrit1,dcrit2)) |
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242 | anuga.log.critical('%s,%.3f,%.3f,%.3f' |
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243 | % ('Q and Velocity and Depth=', Q, |
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244 | culvert_velocity, outlet_culvert_depth)) |
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245 | |
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246 | culv_froude=math.sqrt(Q**2*flow_width/(anuga.g*flow_area**3)) |
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247 | if local_debug =='true': |
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248 | anuga.log.critical('FLOW AREA = %s' % str(flow_area)) |
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249 | anuga.log.critical('PERIMETER = %s' % str(perimeter)) |
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250 | anuga.log.critical('Q final = %s' % str(Q)) |
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251 | anuga.log.critical('FROUDE = %s' % str(culv_froude)) |
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252 | |
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253 | # Determine momentum at the outlet |
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254 | barrel_velocity = Q/(flow_area + anuga.velocity_protection/flow_area) |
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255 | |
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256 | else: # self.inflow.get_average_depth() < 0.01: |
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257 | Q = barrel_velocity = outlet_culvert_depth = 0.0 |
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258 | |
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259 | # Temporary flow limit |
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260 | if barrel_velocity > self.max_velocity: |
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261 | barrel_velocity = self.max_velocity |
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262 | Q = flow_area * barrel_velocity |
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263 | |
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264 | return Q, barrel_velocity, outlet_culvert_depth |
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265 | |
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266 | |
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267 | |
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268 | |
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