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10\title{ANUGA Kinematic Viscosity Module}
11\author{Lindon Roberts}
15\section{Kinematic Viscosity Equation}
16The equation we are interested in are the 2-dimensional parabolic equation given by
18\frac{\partial u}{\partial t} &= (hu_{x})_{x} + (hu_{y})_{y} \\
19\frac{\partial v}{\partial t} &= (hv_{x})_{x} + (hv_{y})_{y}
21where $h$ is the stage height of the water, and $u$ and $v$ are the $x$- and $y$- velocities of the water.
23\subsection{Elliptic Approximation}
24Given some discretisation of the 2d domain into triangles $\{T_{i}\}_{i=1}^{n}$, and letting $\partial T_{i}$ be the set of indices $j$ such that $T_{i}$ and $T_{j}$ share an edge, we approximate as follows
26\int_{T_{i}}\divergence(u_{x}h,u_{y}h) dA &= \int_{\partial T_{i}}(u_{x}h,u_{y}h)\cdot\nu dS \\
27&= \sum_{j\in\partial T_{i}}\ell_{ij}((u_{x}h,u_{y}h)\cdot\nu) \\
28&\approx \sum_{j\in\partial T_{i}}\ell_{ij}\left(\frac{h_{i}+h_{j}}{2}\right)(Du\cdot\nu) \\
29&\approx \sum_{j\in\partial T_{i}}\ell_{ij}\left(\frac{h_{i}+h_{j}}{2}\right)\left(\frac{u_{i}-u_{j}}{d_{ij}}\right)
31where $\ell_{ij}$ is the length of the edge between $T_{i}$ and $T_{j}$, and $d_{ij}$ is the (straight-line) distance between the centroids of $T_{i}$ and $T_{j}$, and $\nu$ is the outward normal.
33We now have the option of whether to approximate the divergence at the centroid as the integral of the divergence over the whole triangle, or whether it should be the integral average of the divergence over the triangle, as given by
34\[\frac{1}{|T_{i}|}\int_{T_{i}}\divergence(u_{x}h,u_{y}h) dA \approx \sum_{j\in\partial T_{i}}\frac{\ell_{ij}}{|T_{i}|}\left(\frac{h_{i}+h_{j}}{2}\right)\left(\frac{u_{i}-u_{j}}{d_{ij}}\right)\]
35Which approximation we use is governed by the boolean field \verb|apply_triangle_areas|, which is set in the constructor (default value True). The module has the ability to solve the elliptic equation $\divergence(u_{x}h,u_{y}h)=f$ for arbitrary right-hand side $f$ also. This is implemented in the \verb|cg_solve| method.
37\subsection{Parabolic Solver}
38To solve the full parabolic equation, we use Implicit Euler for timestepping. We will see below that the elliptic operator $A[h,u]\approx\divergence(u_{x}h,u_{y}h)$ can be written in the form $A[h,u]=B(h)u + c(h)$ where $B(h)$ is a $n\times n$ matrix and $c(h)$ is a length $n$ vector. Therefore our timestepping is given by
39\[\frac{u^{n+1}-u^{n}}{\Delta t} = A[h^{n},u^{n+1}] = B(h^{n})u^{n+1} + c(h^{n})\]
40which rearranges to give
41\[(I-\Delta t B(h^{n}))u^{n+1} = u^{n}+c(h^{n})\Delta t\]
42This is the equation we solve in the \verb|parabolic_solve| method.
44\section{Setting up the matrix problem}
45Since the elliptic interaction is on all the $n$ interior nodes by the interior nodes \emph{and} the $m$ boundary nodes, we actually get a $n\times(n+m)$ sparse matrix of interactions. Along the $i$th row, we have four nonzero entries. We define
46\[g_{ij} = -\frac{\ell_{ij}}{d_{ij}} = g_{i}[edge]\]
47where $edge=0,1,2$ (the edge opposite the vertex numbered 0, 1 or 2), and $T_{j}$ for $j\in\{0,\ldots,n+m-1\}$ is the triangle which neighbours $T_{i}$ along $T_{i}$'s edge number $edge$. If this edge is a boundary, then $j\geq n$ and we are interested in the boundary point at the midpoint of the edge. We enumerate the boundary edges $(i,edge)$ by first sorting by node $i$, then by $edge$.
49We store the values $g_{i}[edge]$ in a $n\times3$ matrix \verb|geo_structure_values| in which the $(i,edge)$ entry is $g_{i}[edge]$. We also store another $n\times3$ matrix \verb|geo_structure_indices| in which the $(i,edge)$ entry is $j$. These matrices are computed during the initialisation process using the C extension module, as they are geometry-dependent only. We use these matrices and the stage heights $h$ to define the elliptic operator $A[h,\cdot]$.
51\subsection{Applying Stage Heights}
52We are given a length $n$ vector of stage heights $h$, from which we need to form the elliptic operator. As stated above, the operator is actually a $n\times(n+m)$ matrix, where we have the off-diagonal entries (in the appropriate places, as given by the matrix \verb|geo_structure_values|, which maps $(i,edge)$ to $j$)
53\[A_{ij} = \left(\frac{h_{i}+h_{j}}{2}\right)g_{ij}\]
54and diagonal entries
55\[A_{ii} = -\sum_{j\in\partial T_{i}}A_{ij}\]
56We of course need to evaluate the stage height on the boundary edges, which we do using the evaluate method associated with each boundary class (the collection of boundary classes is stored in a dictionary with key $(i,edge)$). All the height values (the length $n$ vector $h$ and a length $m$ vector of boundary values) is read into the C extension, along with the geometric structure matrices. The output from this is a tuple $(data,colind,rowptr)$, which are the three arrays corresponding to the CSR Sparse format for matrices (implemented in the ANUGA utilities).
58Given that our operator will receive the $uh$ and $vh$ values as inputs, rather than $u$ and $v$, we also create a matrix \verb|stage_height_scaling| which is a diagonal matrix with entries $1/h[i]$ ($h_{i}>0$) or 0 if $h_{i}=0$ (in this case, the entire interaction should be zero, so this works). Thus applying this matrix to $uh$ and $vh$ will give us $u$ and $v$ respectively. Thus we construct this matrix during this process.
60We now notice that we can only apply this operator matrix to a length $(n+m)$ vector of $u$ or $v$ values. The first $n$ entries of this vector will be our input, but the last $m$ entries are the values of $u$ and $v$ at the boundary, which we can evaluate already. If we write $A=[B|B']$ where $B$ is a $n\times n$ matrix and $B'$ is a $n\times m$ matrix, then the result of multiplyng the full vector of $u$ (or $v$) by $A$ is the same as $Bu+B'b$ where $b$ is the $m$-vector of boundary values of $u$. Therefore we compute the length $n$ vector $c(h)=B'b$, stored as \verb|boundary_vector|, and computed in \verb|build_boundary_vector|. Since we need $c(h)$ for $u$ and $v$, we store this as a $n\times 2$ matrix. In the solving, we will only use one of these columns depending on whether or not we are solving for $u$ or $v$. This is achieved by having the \verb|qty_considered| value equal to 1 ($u$) or 2 ($v$).
62\section{Matrix Multiplication and Solving}
63\subsection{Elliptic Multiplication}
64For the elliptic multiplication, we take in a length $n$ vector (either $uh$ or $vh$). We first need to change $uh$ to $u$ (or $vh$ to $v$), which we do by multiplying by the \verb|stage_heights_scaling| matrix (see above). If we are using the integral average formula rather than the integral formula (see the initial equations), we need to scale down each entry by the area of each triangle. We then extend this vector by zeros to make it of length $n+m$ (so we can multiply by $A$, but have the same effect as multiplying by $B$ only), and then multiply by $A$. We have now computed $B(h)u$. In general, if we just want to evaluate $A[h,u]$ (when \verb|include_boundary| is True), then we need to add $c(h)$ to the result, so we do this. We do not want to do this when we are solving (see below), which is why we set it as an argument.
66We then scale the result back from $u$ to $uh$, in order to get consistency in the solver.
68\subsection{Parabolic Multiplication}
69This is almost identical to the elliptic case, except we calculate $(I-\Delta t B(h))u$ (note we do not include the boundary). We do not include the boundary term $c(h)$ because this method is only ever called during the parabolic solve. In the implementation, we assume that we get $u$ (not $uh$) as the input. The scaling is done in the solver wrapper.
72The solving is done with the ANUGA conjugate gradient solver. In the elliptic case, we read in a length $n$ or $n\times 2$ right-hand side. If it is a vector, then we need to ensure we are considering the right quantity (see above, \verb|qty_considered|). If it is a matrix, then solve for $uh$ and $vh$ using the two columns respectively. This is split up using the various \verb|cg_solve| methods. We then solve the equation
73\[B(h)u = f - c(h)\]
74for $u$. This equivalently solves $A[h,u]=f$ for $u$ (or $v$) and return either a vector of $uh$ values or a matrix of $uh$ and $vh$ values (depending on the input). The elliptic solver is \verb|cg_solve|.
76For the parabolic solver, we assume that we are given both $(uh)^{n}$ and $(vh)^{n}$ as input. We then scale down to $u^{n}$ and $v^{n}$ (given that the most recent call of \verb|apply_stage_heights| would have been for $h^{n}$), and solve the equation
77\[(I-\Delta t B(h^{n}))u^{n+1} = u^{n}+c(h^{n})\Delta t\]
79Note that the elliptic solver returns $uh$, but the parabolic solver only returns $u^{n+1}$ and $v^{n+1}$ (the non-scaled values), since we do not have the values of $h^{n+1}$ available.
81\section{Next Steps}
82The module is not yet complete. It functions as a stand-alone module, but is not yet fully integrated into the ANUGA code. The primary things that need to be addressed are
84\item Accessing the value of $\Delta t$ from the domain input.
85\item Accessing the boundary values of $h$, $uh$ and $vh$ from the domain class. This may need to involve some fixing of the enumeration of the boundary sides used in the body of the code.
86\item Moving from accepting as input stage heights to just heights (stage heights + elevation).
87\item Simplify the code to take in a matrix with the $h$, $uh$ and $vh$ values in one go, apply stage heights and then perform a parabolic solve.
88\item Including the module as part of the evolve process for the ANUGA program.
89\item Setting up the compiler for Linux (all testing and development done on Windows).
92\section{More Information}
93For some more information, including sample usage, go to the Readme, or the test file.
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