# Changeset 7467

Ignore:
Timestamp:
Sep 2, 2009, 5:03:04 PM (11 years ago)
Message:

Added new speed images from Kristy and added reference to NOAA data

Location:
anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008
Files:
4 edited

Unmodified
Removed
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/appendix.tex

 r7465 \end{figure} %\begin{figure}[ht] %\begin{center} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_f0_0003_speed} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_f0_03_speed} %\caption{The maximal flow speeds for the same model parameterisations %  found in Figure \protect \ref{fig:sensitivity_friction}. The %  reference flow speeds are shown in Figure \protect %  \ref{fig:reference_model} (right).} %\label{fig:sensitivity_friction_speed} %\end{center} %\end{figure} % John: I do not think we need to show sensitivity to flow speeds \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_friction_speed} \caption{The maximal flow speeds for the same model parameterisations found in Figure \protect \ref{fig:sensitivity_friction}.} \label{fig:sensitivity_friction_speed} \end{center} \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{sensitivity_minus10cm_depth} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{sensitivity_plus10cm_depth} \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_boundary_wave} \caption{Model results with wave height at \textsc{anuga} boundary artificially modified to assess sensitivities. The reference inundation extent is shown in Figure \protect \ref{fig:reference_model} (left).  The left and right images \protect \ref{fig:reference_model} (left). The left and right images show the inundation results if the wave at the \textsc{anuga} boundary is reduced or increased by 10 cm respectively. The inundation \end{center} \end{figure} FIXME (Jane): How and why was the +/- 10 cm chosen? %\begin{figure}[ht] %\begin{center} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_minus10cm_speed} %\includegraphics[width=6cm,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_plus10cm_speed} %\caption{The maximal flow speeds for the same model parameterisations %  found in Figure \protect \ref{fig:sensitivity_boundary}. The %  reference flow speeds are shown in Figure \protect %  \ref{fig:reference_model} (right).} %\label{fig:sensitivity_boundary_speed} %\end{center} %\end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_boundary_wave_speed} \caption{The maximal flow speeds for the same model parameterisations found in Figure \protect \ref{fig:sensitivity_boundary}.} \label{fig:sensitivity_boundary_speed} \end{center} \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] buildings will increase the inundation extent beyond what was surveyed.} % FIXME (Ole): Include speed picture elsewhere %The right hand image shows the corresponding flow speeds in the absence of buildings. %The reference results are as shown in Figure %\protect \ref{fig:reference_model}.} \label{fig:sensitivity_nobuildings} \label{fig:sensitivity_buildings} \end{center} \end{figure} \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/sensitivity_buildings_speed} \caption{The maximal flow speeds for the same model parameterisations found in Figure~\protect~\ref{fig:sensitivity_buildings}. As expected the presence of buildings reduce the flow speeds behind them, but tends to increase speeds in passages between buildings.} \label{fig:sensitivity_buildings_speed} \end{center} \end{figure}
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/data.tex

 r7463 DBDB2, obtained from US Naval Research Labs (\url{http://www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/DBDB2_WWW}); \item a 3 second arc grid covering the whole of the Andaman Sea based on Thai Navy charts no. 45 and no. 362; and (FIXME (OLE): wait for DB's reply) \item a 3 second arc grid obtained directly from NOAA covering the whole of the Andaman Sea based on the Smith & Sandwell 2-minute dataset (\url{http://topex.ucsd.edu/WWW_html/srtm30_plus.html})as well as Thai Navy charts no. 45 and no. 362; and \item a one second grid created from the digitised Thai Navy bathymetry chart, no. 358, which covers Patong Bay and the \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} %\includegraphics[width=8.0cm,keepaspectratio=true]{patongescapemap.jpg} \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/post_tsunami_survey.jpg} \caption{Tsunami survey mapping the maximum observed inundation at the first wave between 9:55 am and 10:05 am local time or about 2 hours after the source rupture. FIXME (Ole): We should add observed arrival time and later relate that to the modelled dynamics. Wait for Drew's updated animation.
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/results.tex

 r7465 reasonable. \subsection{Inundation} \subsection{Inundation}\label{sec:inundation results} The \textsc{anuga} simulation described in the previous section and used to model shallow water propgation also predicts \includegraphics[width=\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/threshold.jpg} \caption{Simulated inundation versus observed inundation using an inundation threshold of 1cm (left) and 10cm (right).} inundation threshold of 1 cm (left) and 10 cm (right).} \label{fig:inundationcomparison1cm} \end{center} \subsection{Eye-witness accounts} \subsubsection{Arrival time} The arrival time of the first wave took place between 9:55 and 10:55 as described in Section~\ref{sec:eyewitness data}. The modelled arrival time at the beach is 10:01 as can be verified from the animation provided in \label{sec:inundation results}. Subsequent waves of variable magnitude appear over the next two hours approximately 20-30 minutes apart. % 10:01, 10:19, 10:46, 11:13, 11:43 The first arrival and overall dynamic behaviour is therefor reasonably consistent with the eye-witness accounts. \subsubsection{Observed wave dynamics} Figure \ref{fig:gauge_locations} shows four locations where time series have been extracted from the model. The two offshore time series \label{tab:depth and flow comparisons} \end{table} FIXME (Jane): We should perhaps look at average data in area surrounding these points %can be estimated with landmarks found in
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/sensitivity.tex

 r7451 %========================Wave-Height==========================% \subsection{Input Wave Height}\label{sec:waveheightSA} The effect of the wave height used as input to the inundation model \textsc{anuga} was also investigated. Wave heights in the open ocean are generally well predicted by the generation and propagation models such as \textsc{ursga} as demonstrated in Section \ref{sec:resultsPropagation} and also in \cite{thomas2009}. Nevertheless, the effect of errors in the wave height used as input to the inundation model \textsc{anuga} was investigated by perturbing the amplitude of the input wave by $\pm$10 cm. This value was chosen to be larger than the expected error in the amplitude predicted by the propagation model. Figure~\ref{fig:sensitivity_boundary} and  Table~\ref{table:inundationAreas} indicate that the inundation severity is directly proportional to the boundary waveheight but small indicate that the inundation severity is directly proportional to the boundary waveheight but small perturbations in the input wave height of 10 cm appear to have little effect on the final inundated area. Obviously larger perturbations will have greater impact. However, wave heights in the open ocean are generally well predicted by the generation and propagation models such as \textsc{ursga} as demonstrated in Section \ref{sec:resultsPropagation} and also in \cite{thomas2009}. would have greater impact. The presence or absence of physical buildings in the elevation model was also investigated. Figure~\ref{fig:sensitivity_nobuildings} shows the inundated area %and the associated maximum flow speeds in the presence and absence of buildings. From Figure~\ref{fig:sensitivity_buildings} shows the inundated area in the presence and absence of buildings. From Table~\ref{table:inundationAreas} it is apparent that densely built-up areas act as dissipators greatly reducing the inundated area. This result suggest that, when possible the presence of human-made structures should be included into the model topography. Furthermore this result also indicates that simply matching point sites with much lower resolution meshes Figure~\ref{fig:sensitivity_buildings_speed} show the associated flow speeds in the presence and absence of buildings. It is evident that flow speeds tend to increase in passages between buildings but slow down in areas behind them as compared to the bare earth scenario. These results suggest that, when possible, the presence of human-made structures should be included into the model topography. Furthermore, these results also indicate that simply matching point sites with much lower resolution meshes than used here is an over simplification. Such simulations cannot capture the fine detail that so clearly affects inundation. %However, flow speeds tend to increase in passages between buildings. fine detail that so clearly affects inundation depth and flow speeds. \begin{table}
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