# Changeset 7521

Ignore:
Timestamp:
Sep 22, 2009, 2:57:56 PM (14 years ago)
Message:

Addressed review comments from Leharne Fountain (and a few of my own)

Location:
anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008
Files:
8 edited

Unmodified
Removed
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/acknowledgements.tex

 r7508 like to thank Niran Chaimanee from the CCOP for providing the post 2004 tsunami survey data, building footprints, satellite image and the elevation data for Patong city, Prapasri Asawakun and the elevation data for Patong city; Prapasri Asawakun from the Suranaree University of Technology and Parida Kuneepong for supporting this work, Drew Whitehouse from the Australian National supporting this work; Drew Whitehouse from the Australian National University for preparing the animation of the simulated impact; and Rick von Feldt for locating the Novotel from the video footage and
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/conclusion.tex

 r7499 An associated aim of this paper was to further validate the \textsc{ursga--anuga} tsunami modelling methodology employed by Geoscience Australia which is used to simulate the tsunami inundation. Australia which is used to simulate tsunami inundation. This study shows that the tsunami modelling methodology adopted is credible and able to predict detailed inundation extents and dynamics with reasonable accuracy. Model predictions matched well a detailed inundation survey of Patong Bay, Thailand as well as altimetry data from the \textsc{jason}, of Patong Bay, Thailand as well as altimetry data from the \textsc{jason} satellite, eye-witness accounts of wave front arrival times and onshore flow speeds.
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/data.tex

 r7499 The sub-sampling of larger grids was performed by using \textsc{resample}, a Generic Mapping Tools (\textsc{GMT}) program (\cite{wessel98}). a Generic Mapping Tools (\textsc{GMT}) program \cite{wessel98}. contour lines) and a tsunami inundation survey map from the Coordinating Committee Co-ordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) (\cite{szczucinski06}) Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) \cite{szczucinski06} was obtained to validate model inundation. See also acknowledgements at the end of this paper. In this section we also present eye-witness \subsubsection{Topography Data} A 1 second grid comprising the onshore topography and the nearshore A 1~second grid comprising the onshore topography and the nearshore bathymetry for Patong Beach was created from the Thai Navy charts (described in Section \ref{sec:bathymetry data}) and from 1 m and 10 m elevation contours provided by the CCOP (see Section \ref{sec:inundation data} for details). The 1 second terrain model (described in Section \ref{sec:bathymetry data}) and from 1~m and 10~m elevation contours provided by the CCOP. The 1~second terrain model for the and community as shown in Figure~\ref{fig:patong_bathymetry}. Two 1/3 second grids were created: One for the saddle point covering Two 1/3~second grids were created: One for the saddle point covering Merlin and Tri Trang Beaches and one for Patong City and its immediate shore area.  These grids were based on the same data used for the 1 second data grid.  The Patong city grid was further modified based on shore area.  These grids were based on the same data used for the 1~second data grid.  The Patong city grid was further modified based on satellite imagery to include the river and lakes towards the south of Patong City which were not part of the provided elevation data. The depth of the river and lake system was set uniformly to a depth of 1 m. The depth of the river and lake system was set uniformly to a depth of 1~m. \end{center} \caption{3D visualisation of the elevation data set used for the nearshore propagation and and inundation in Patong Bay showing \caption{3D visualisation of the elevation data set used for the nearshore propagation and inundation in Patong Bay showing digitised data points and contours as well as rivers and roads draped over the data model.} report that many people at Patong Beach observed an initial retreat (trough or draw down) of the shoreline of more than 100 m followed a few minutes later by a the shoreline of more than 100~m followed a few minutes later by a strong wave (crest). Another less powerful wave arrived another five or ten minutes later. Eyewitness statements place the arrival time of the first wave between 9:55 am and 10:05 am local time or about 2 hours the first wave between 9:55~am and 10:05~am local time or about 2~hours after the source rupture.
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/introduction.tex

 r7480 Currently, the extent of tsunami-related field data is limited. The cost of tsunami monitoring programs, bathymetry and topography surveys cost of tsunami monitoring programs as well as bathymetry and topography surveys prohibits the collection of data in many of the regions in which tsunamis pose greatest threat. The resulting lack of data has limited tsunamis pose the greatest threat. The resulting lack of data has limited the number of field data sets available to validate tsunami models.
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/method.tex

 r7501 taken from the slip model G-M9.15 of Chlieh et al~\cite{chlieh07}. This model was created by inversion of wide range of geodetic and seismic data. The slip model consists of 686 20 km x 20 km subsegments each with a different slip, strike and dip angle. The dip subfaults go from $17.5^0$ in the north and $12^0$ in range of geodetic and seismic data. The slip model consists of 686~20~km~x~20~km subsegments each with a different slip, strike and dip angle. The dip subfaults go from $17.5^\circ$ in the north and $12^\circ$ in the south. Refer to Chlieh et al~\cite{chlieh07} for a detailed discussion of this model and its derivation. %Note that the geodetic
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/paper.tex

 r7499 %-------authors----------- \author{J.~D. Jakeman \and O. Nielsen \and K. VanPutten \author{J.~D. Jakeman \and O. Nielsen \and K. Van Putten \and R. Mleczko \and D. Burbidge \and N. Horspool} \authorrunning{Jakeman et alia} \email{john.jakeman@anu.edu.au} \and O. Nielsen \and R. Mleczko \and D. Burbidge \and K. VanPutten \and N. Horspool \at O. Nielsen \and R. Mleczko \and D. Burbidge \and K. Van Putten \and N. Horspool \at Geoscience Australia, Canberra, \textsc{Australia} }
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/results.tex

 r7500 \begin{figure}[ht] \begin{center} \includegraphics[width=0.8\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/surface_deformation.jpg} \includegraphics[width=0.7\textwidth,keepaspectratio=true]{figures/surface_deformation.jpg} \end{center} \caption{Location and magnitude of the vertical component of the sea floor displacement associated with the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami based on the slip model, G-M9.15. The black arrows which point up based on the slip model, G-M9.15 compared with observed deformation (arrows). The black arrows which point up show areas observed to uplift during and immediately after the earthquake; those pointing down are locations which subsided. The \textsc{ursga} and was propagated throughout the Bay of Bengal. The rectangular computational domain of the largest grid extended from 90$^0$ to 100$^0$ East and 0 to 15$^0$ North and contained 90$^\circ$ to 100$^\circ$ East and $0^\circ$ to 15$^\circ$ North and contained 1335$\times$1996 finite difference points. Inside this grid, a nested sequence of grids was used. The grid resolution of the nested grids \textsc{ursga}-predicted sea surface elevation with the \textsc{jason} satellite altimetry data. The \textsc{ursga} model replicates the amplitude and timing of the the wave observed at $2.5^0$ South, amplitude and timing of the the wave observed at $2.5^\circ$ South, but underestimates the amplitude of the wave further to the south at $4^0$ South. In the model, the southern most of these two waves $4^\circ$ South. In the model, the southern most of these two waves appears only as a small bump in the cross section of the model (shown in Figure~\ref{fig:jasonComparison}) instead of being a distinct peak that the \textsc{ursga} model prediction of the ocean surface elevation becomes out of phase with the \textsc{jason} data at $3^0$ to $7^0$ North data at $3^\circ$ to $7^\circ$ North latitude. Chlieh et al~\cite{chlieh07} also observed these misfits and suggest it is caused by a reflected wave from the Aceh Peninsula that After propagating the tsunami in the open ocean using \textsc{ursga}, the approximated ocean and surface elevation and horisontal flow the approximated ocean and surface elevation and horizontal flow velocities were extracted and used to construct a boundary condition for the \textsc{anuga} model. The interface between the \textsc{ursga} efficiently increase the simulation accuracy for the impact area. The grid resolution ranged between a maximum triangle area of $1\times 10^5$ m$^2$ (corresponding to approximately 440 m between mesh points) maximum triangle area of $1\times 10^5$~m$^2$ (corresponding to approximately 440~m between mesh points) near the western ocean boundary to $20$ m$^2$ (corresponding to boundary (roughly following the 100~m depth contour) to $20$~m$^2$ (corresponding to approximately 6 m between mesh points) in the small regions surrounding the inundation boundary condition, effectively replicating the time dependent wave height present just inside the computational domain. The velocity field on these boundaries was set to zero. Other choices include applying the mean tide value as a The velocity field on these boundaries was kept at to zero during the simulation. Other choices include applying the mean tide value as a Dirichlet boundary condition. But experiments as well as the result of the verification reported here showed that this approach domain was deemed inundated if at some point in time it was covered by at least 1 cm of water. The precision of the inundation boundary generated by the on-site survey is most likely less than that as it generated by the on-site survey is most likely less than this as it was determined by observing water marks and other signs left by the receding waters. Consequently, the measurement error along Discrepancies between the survey data and the modelled inundation include: unknown distribution of surface roughness, inappropriate include arise from errors and uncertainties in both the field surveys and the models. The former include measurement errors in the GPS survey recordings and missing data in the field survey data itself. The latter include unknown distribution of surface roughness, uncertainties in the parameterisation of the source model, discretisation errors, effect of humans structures on flow, as well as uncertainties in the elevation data, friction, effects of erosion and deposition by the tsunami event, measurement errors in the GPS survey recordings, and missing data in the field survey data itself. The impact of some of these sources of uncertainties are is investigated in flow, as well as uncertainties in the elevation data including effects of erosion and deposition by the tsunami event. The impacts of some of the model uncertainties are is investigated in Section~\ref{sec:sensitivity}. & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\mbox{Depth [m]}} & \multicolumn{2}{c|}{\mbox{Flow [m/s]}} \\ & \mbox{Observed} & \mbox{Modelled} & \mbox{Observed} & \mbox{Modelled} \\ \cline{2-5} \mbox{North} & 1.5-2 & 1.4 & 5-7 & 0.1 - 3.3 \\ \mbox{South} & 1.5-2 & 1.5 & 0.5-2 & 0.2 - 2.6 \\ \hline & \mbox{Observed} & \mbox{Modelled (peak)} & \mbox{Observed} & \mbox{Modelled (peak)} \\ \cline{2-5} \mbox{North} & 1.5-2 & 1.4 & 5-7 & 3.3 \\ \mbox{South} & 1.5-2 & 1.5 & 0.5-2 & 2.6 \\ \hline \end{array} \]
• ## anuga_work/publications/boxing_day_validation_2008/tsunami07.bib

 r7482 @article{zoppou99, AUTHOR = {Zoppou, C. and Roberts, S.G }, TITLE = "{Catastrophic collapse of water supply reserviours in urban areas}", TITLE = "{Catastrophic collapse of water supply reservoirs in urban areas}", YEAR = {1999}, JOURNAL = {Journal of Hydraulic Engineering}, % Note Capitalisation is as in the paper @article{satake95, title="{Linear and nonlinear computations of the 1992 {N}icaragua earthquake tsunami}", title = "{New, improved version of Generic Mapping Tools released}", journal = {EOS trans. AGU}, year = {199  8}, year = {1998}, OPTvolume = {79}, OPTpages = {579}, @ARTICLE{weiss06, AUTHOR = {Weiss, R. and wunnemann, K. and Bahlburg, H.}, TITLE = "{Numerical Modelling of Generation, Propagation and Runup of Tsunamis Caused by Ocean Impacts: Model Stratefy and Techical Solutions}", AUTHOR = {Weiss, R. and Wunnemann, K. and Bahlburg, H.}, TITLE = "{Numerical Modelling of Generation, Propagation and Runup of Tsunamis Caused by Ocean Impacts: Model Strategy and Techical Solutions}", JOURNAL = {Geohpys. J. Int.}, YEAR = {2006}, pages = "29--37", year = "2009", note = "Tsunamis in Asia", issn = "1367-9120", doi = "DOI: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.11.003", url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VHG-4V35475-1/2/91dface8aa1777e5d8bcd15d8ce95a55", author = "Romano, M. and Liong, S.-Y. and Vu, M.T. and Zemskyy, V. and Doan, C.D. and Dao, M.H. and Tkalich, P."} %note = "Tsunamis in Asia", @article{liu09,
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